Ancient History GK – Harappan Civilization GK – Different Sites

Harappan Civilization GK – Welcome to! In today’s class we will discuss about the Harappan Civilization from Ancient History part. We will talk about different sites of Harappan civilization, important findings and excavations. We will also discuss about the items which were found during the excavation of each Harappan Civilization sites.

Ancient History GK – Harappa Civilization GK Notes

Harappan Civilization different sites and their important findings during excavations

Harappa (Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan)

Wooden coffin burials, 2 rows of 6 granaries, Cemeteries in citadel area, Stone symbol of yoni and lingam, Dice, Wheat and barley in wooden mortar, Mother goddess figure, Mirror, Copper scale, Dancing male figure (Proto shiva), Male torso, Sculpture of dog chasing deer, Terracotta or bronze carts (ekka, carriage).

Mohanjodaro (Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan)

The great bath, The great granary, Bronze statue of dancing girl, Post cremation burial, Steatite sculpture of bearded priest, Pashupati seal, Limestone priest head.

Lothal (Gujarat)

Rice husk, Dockyard, Fire altars, Terracotta figures of ship and horse, Cremated remains, Modern day chess, Painted jars, Measuring instruments, Naval trade.

Surkotada (Gujarat)

First actual remains of horse bones.

Dholavira (Gujarat)

Water harnessing system, Dams, Stadium, Giant water reservoir, 10 large size signs inscription.

Kalibangan (Rajasthan)

Toy carts, Camel bones, Bangle factory, Citadel and lower town, Decorated bricks, Fire altars.

Rakhigarhi (Haryana)

Drains, Cemetery, Granary, Terracotta bricks.

Alamgirpur (Uttar pradesh)

Copper broken blade, Impression of cloth on a trough, Ceramic items.

Ropar (Rupnagar, Punjab)

Copper axe, Dog buried with human.

Banawali (Haryana)

Barley grains, Toy plough, Radial streets, Lapis lazuli stone, Fire altars.

Mehrgarh (Pakistan)

Copper tools, Pottery

Harappan civilization GK Notes – Important characteristics of Harappan civilization

# The Indus Valley Civilization is the contemporary of Egyptian, Mesopotamia and Chinese civilization.

# Rakhigarhi (Haryana, India) is the biggest Harappan site.

# We can divide Harappan civilization in two cultures – 1. Early Harappan culture and 2. Mature Harappan culture

Early Harappan culture-

# People lived in large villages.

# Use of copper, wheel, plough, granaries and long distance trade was reported during this period.

Mature Harappan culture-

# Large cities and town planning began during this period.

# International trade, use of seals, weight also began.

City layout during Harappan civilization-

# City during this period were divided into two parts-
1. Upper town
2. Lower town

# The upper town was for ruling class which consists of public structures like great bath, assembly hall, granaries.

# The lower town was for workmen which consists of small houses, workmen quarters, and other structures designed for common people.

More characteristics of the Harappan civilization – Ancient History GK Notes

House architecture – The Harappan people had engineering architecture mind, because they had Grid patterns arrangement of their houses. Their streets were running from north to south direction. Their bathroom were constructed as brick-lined.

Drainage system – They had proper drainage system. The street drains were covered with stone slabs and bricks. For drain cleaning purpose, they had manholes. Their kitchen had holes in the bottom which were used as sink. The people emphasized on cleanliness and health.

Lifestyle food habits – The people during this period were both vegetarian and non-vegetarians. The main food was barley and wheat. Rice was rarely taken. They also had little bit knowledge of dairy products.

Indus Valley Civilization – All excavated sites